Sessions / Asynchronous-Video

Video Library #1148

Fri, Feb 19, 11:45-Sun, Mar 7, 12:00 JST

All asynchronous video presentations are available in this handy YouTube playlist for your viewing pleasure. View the videos at your leisure throughout the conference--and beyond! (All videos will be made public about three months after the conference ends; for now, the playlist is intended for registered conference attendees only.)

Video recordings of select synchronous sessions will be uploaded to this playlist soon, as well.

Online Project-Based Teaching’s Benefits to Young Learners and Their Families #1127

Sat, Feb 20, 09:30-11:00 JST

How young learners engage in both online and in-person classes in a small private language school can be worth seeing in this session and will show audiences students' resilience through the project. This presenter provided projects-based teaching in Zoom to make the students happy in language learning in April and May in 2020. Especially, a “ninja project” invited students to support their families with actions. As a result of this, all students were motivated to do presentations on Flipgrid and Padlet to complete the project. The students, aged from 6-12, have been learning English in person and online since last June and have improved their communicative competence in this school. This presentation shows the objectives, students' work, comments, and parents’ comments. In addition, the result of formative assessment is included in order to prove how the project-based teaching helped the students and their families.

** Part of the Pecha Kucha Extravaganza; each pecha kucha is just under 7 minutes long (20 slides at 20 seconds per slide).

Teaching the Board Game Go to English Learners #1129

Sat, Feb 20, 09:30-11:00 JST

Many English teachers struggle with motivating their students, while entertainments such as videos and games seem much more attractive than learning a foreign language. Then how about making a fun activity the topic of an English class? In my presentation, I would like to show you how to introduce the game of Go in your English classroom. The reason is simple. Go is a fascinating board game that has a long history of several thousand years and thus is rich in culture, stories, and legendary players, as well as in strategies and tactics to explore. The basic rules are very easy to learn, and yet Go is challenging enough to never get boring. Take your students on a journey into the Go world. A single lesson or series of lessons on Go will provide you and your students an enjoyable experience in which English language learning happens on the way.

Determining Text-Specific Comments in L2 Peer Response #1024

Sat, Feb 20, 10:30-10:55 JST

In second language (L2) peer response discourse literature, there appears little research on defining specificity in commentary. This case study examines peer response activities for essay assignments in a Korean university’s English writing course. The data comprises asynchronous peer response commentary and revision attempts for final drafts. The coding scheme employs Liu and Sadler’s (2003) codes for area, nature, and type commentary, and then adds a specificity dimension to account for specific and generic features. Results indicate that students employed various noteworthy text features – including but not limited to hedging techniques, vague expressivity, and faux specificity – when constructing commentary. Revision ideas were more often accepted for surface-level or generic-dimension commentary, suggesting simplified concepts were more impressive to essay writers. The results provide useful implications for how to model response in ways that encourage specific or generic idea construction.

Keynote Encore Presentation: Gerd Leonhard #1174

Sat, Feb 20, 12:00-Mon, Mar 1, 12:00 JST

Keynote speaker Gerd Leonhard will be joining us on the final day of the conference to answer questions and participate in further discussion! Conference participants can view his presentation at their leisure and then post questions/comments in our conference Discord server (Plenaries Discussion --> Keynote Speaker Gerd Leonhard).

MS Word Can Measure Speaking Ability. This Changes Everything #1016

Sat, Feb 20, 14:00-14:25 JST

Korean students score at the top of the world in math and science and much lower in English speaking ability. Why? In math class, they have a math test. In science class, they have a science test. In speaking class, they have a grammar test. With videos, transcripts, and data, this presentation describes a test that is easy to give and grade. It both measures and improves speaking ability. Each student gets extensive personal feedback, and teachers get accurate grading and improvement data. In brief: three students of similar ability have a 17-minute conversation. The test is recorded on students’ phones. Students transcribe just what they said on MS Word, in about 90 minutes. MS Word gives their total words spoken and average number of words per utterance. The first test gives their ability; the second test gives their improvement. This is a communicative test, and MS Word measures precisely how much they communicated.

Affective Effects of Self-Pronunciation Evaluation via Online Search Engines #1054

Sat, Feb 20, 14:30-14:55 JST

This research presents the pedagogical effects of self-pronunciation evaluations incorporating free online search engines such as Siri and Google Translate to facilitate Japanese university learners’ automaticity. For this research, systematically designed evaluation methods and materials were developed. The foci were (a) to promote activities that reinforced the self-monitoring and self-repair skills students developed during instruction and (b) to use available technology that students could access easily at any time. The designed systematic self-evaluation sheet enabled students to track and record their production changes for each target English word throughout the instruction. This study presents (a) the evaluation sheet and work results of the students, (b) a list of misrecognized words, and (c) questionnaire results examining the learners’ affective valuables utilizing the online recognition system. The study revealed that use of the search engine along with explicit instruction provided effective monitoring tools that helped foster autonomous learners.

Zoom or Room: Investigating Interactive Differences On- and Offline #1020

Sat, Feb 20, 15:30-15:55 JST

Since the onset of the coronavirus, EFL teachers have turned to videoconferencing applications such as Zoom and WebEx, which enable a wide range of interactive classroom activities. These apps have features called "breakout rooms" that let students do small-group activities and tasks. The hope is that (assuming good internet connections) the interactive processes will be the same or similar to offline classrooms, implying that overall task performance will be similar, and therefore, learning opportunities will also be similar. This study questions this assumption. Recordings from four university classes across two semesters of groups doing tasks on Zoom were compared to those of groups working offline. In general, the online learners (using Zoom) had different interaction patterns: they engaged in more task-organizing talk, had more and longer pauses, and engaged in fewer language-related episodes (LREs) than did the offline learners. The implications for teaching and learning are discussed.

The Role That English Plays in the World Today #1160

Sat, Feb 20, 15:30-18:00 JST

I did research to establish whether English is imperialist, democratic, or neutral. The initial spread of English in the world might have been an imperialistic process; but in a modern society with globalization, the continued development of technology, and the expansion of business, there has been an increased need to adopt a lingua franca. English has been adopted and adapted to facilitate this role. At present, approximately one in every three people in the world are able of communicating at a proficient level of English. English has become a useful additional resource to society that contributes to a greater cultural understanding and advancement.

*** Part of the Graduate Student Showcase; this presentation, itself, is 25 minutes long. ***

Language Planning: An Example from Africa #1161

Sat, Feb 20, 15:30-18:00 JST

Linguistic concepts and explanations can be foreign to the layman. However, if you tell someone that language planning forms part of language, their attentiveness might raise a level. If you mention this to someone in a country where more than one language is accepted as an official language and convey to them that their specific language is being planned, then you will have their full attention. In this presentation I will use Cooper’s 1989 framework to describe and evaluate the impact language planning had on the education of black South Africans from 1948 to 1994. This time frame of world history is commonly known as apartheid. I chose this time frame as it is an excellent example of how important the role of language planning is in a country. The language planning in South Africa during this time controlled mother-tongue education, which led to black people rejecting mother-tongue education. Black people felt that they were forced to study the language of their oppressors. This ultimately led to a separate department of education and riots against the language-planning policies, the end result being the eventual fall of apartheid.

*** Part of the Graduate Student Showcase; this presentation, itself, is ~25 minutes long. ***

Example of a Communicative Lesson for a Mixed-Ability Online English Literature Class #1164

Sat, Feb 20, 15:30-18:00 JST

I developed this 5-lesson plan for the Overseas Educational Institution Portal—Remote Class Materials Contest (재외교육기관포털—원격 수 자료 공모) hosted by Seoul National University and the Korean Ministry of Education. It involves many small steps that are simple enough for students at lower levels (A2+) but that can be extremely expressive and rewarding for advanced students. It takes advantage of technology by utilizing breakout rooms and a variety of applications from Google. In this lesson we’ll be focusing on ekphrastic poetry.

*** Part of the Graduate Student Showcase; this presentation, itself, is ~25 minutes long. ***

A Framework for Adapting and Exploiting Authentic Materials with Young English Learners #1167

Sat, Feb 20, 15:30-18:00 JST

Sources of authentic input in language teaching are generally defined as materials that have not been designed specifically for the purpose of teaching, like the internet, TV, or literature (Gilmore, 2007; Nunan, 1989). In contrast, pedagogical textbooks and syllabi are based on second language learning methodologies. Whether language teachers choose authentic real-life materials or textbooks will in both cases involve assessing, selecting, modifying or preserving, and subsequently evaluating them. Furthermore, language learning being extremely sensitive to the teaching context, teachers are advised to establish a list of local criteria as a prerequisite for using and developing materials. Based on his own experience and a review of past and current literature (Jolly & Bolitho, 2011; McDonough & Shaw, 2002; Saraceni, 2003; Tomlinson, 2008), the presenter will introduce and discuss examples of procedures and techniques for utilizing real-life materials effectively including analyzing the characteristics of learners including, for example, their level, needs and interests; selecting samples of language based on learners’ analysis; analyzing the materials for vocabulary and language structures that are meaningful, salient, and useful to the learners; orchestrating meaningful interaction between learners and the materials; asking high-order thinking (cognitive skills) questions focusing on meaning; encouraging learners to search for and use authentic materials independently after class; nurturing language awareness through repeated and purposeful exposure to language patterns; and piloting, monitoring and modifying materials.

*** Part of the Graduate Student Showcase; this presentation, itself, is ~25 minutes long. ***

The Impact of Presenting Videos in an L2 Listening Comprehension Test: An Eye-Tracking Study #1108

Sat, Feb 20, 16:00-16:25 JST

Listening is perhaps the most hidden and inaccessible language process, which makes it hard to investigate precisely. With the introduction of an eye-tracking method in L2 research, access to L2 learners’ cognitive processes during listening comprehension has become more feasible. This study used an eye-tracking method to investigate L2 learners’ cognitive processing during a listening comprehension test where videos were presented as stimuli. Most existing eye-tracking studies looked into learners’ reading processes, particularly the cognitive efforts identified while students read a sentence-level text. Few studies have yet investigated the cognitive process of listening comprehension, particularly with the presence of visual cues provided together with the aural input. A total of 117 EFL learners completed a video-mediated listening comprehension test, and their test scores and eye-movement data were analyzed. Findings show that the candidates in the video listening condition attended to the visual cues significantly more than the stem and answer choices and performed better than the candidates in the audio-only condition. It was also found that the ways of reading the stem and answer choices were not significantly affected by the presence of the visual cues and that the candidates perceived the multimodal input as additional information. In terms of the candidates’ viewing behaviors, longer and more frequent viewing of the answer key options and the PPT slides in the academic lecture videos led to improvements in test scores, while viewing distractors or speakers showed an opposite trend. This study concludes by asserting a need for more work to be carried out on this topic since there is much more variability in listening and multimodal input compared to simple reading or writing.

Instructors' Perspectives on Korean Students' Ideologies of English #1023

Sat, Feb 20, 16:30-16:55 JST

When it comes to Korean ideologies of English language and culture, Park (2009) theorizes three distinct practices: necessitation of English in terms of social status and mobility, externalization of English as an Other that conflicts with Korean identity, and self-deprecation of one’s own progress and achievements as English speakers. However, limited evidence exists in the literature to support these theories, and some populations such as university English instructors have seldom been investigated. This study will present survey and interview data from instructors of English in Korea for gauging their thoughts on the three aforementioned ideologies, including how instructors derive their own conclusions and how they observe students exhibiting such characteristics. Survey data was collected in Spring 2020 with reflective interviews conducted in Summer 2020, meaning answers might be contextualized by COVID-19 circumstances. For a few instructors, anonymous surveys gauging students’ perceptions were also gathered and compared to their instructors’ responses.

Higher Education Academic Identity Formation and Educator Implications #1006

Sat, Feb 20, 17:00-17:25 JST

Higher education is an important time in students’ lives, as it coincides with their identity construction of who they are and want to become. A review of the literature reveals students’ academic identity encompasses and relates to both psychological, internal aspects (beliefs, self-worth, and self-efficacy) and sociocultural/contextual factors (social interactions with peers/teachers, home-culture relevance, sense of belonging and acceptance). The kind of academic identity students develop ultimately shapes how they perceive learning and school, influences their behaviors and choices, and affects their overall academic achievement. Thus, it is imperative for educators to be aware of the various factors that influence students’ academic identity, as well as to design their curriculum and classroom instruction to best cultivate it. This literature review focuses on a discussion of four notable identity theories and concludes with educator implications and strategies to better foster students’ academic identity within our classrooms.

Encore Presentations #1176

Sun, Feb 21, 00:05-Sun, Mar 7, 12:00 JST

Did you miss a synchronous session? Were you distracted while participating, and want to revisit something? Check our conference Synchronous Sessions YouTube playlist! Many of our synchronous sessions are available here for viewing at your leisure. (Please don't share the link; it's intended for conference participants only, though all our conference videos will be made available on the public Korea TESOL YouTube Channel about three months after the conference ends.)

Anything, Anytime and Anywhere: Connecting Virtually with a Personal Touch #1085

Sun, Feb 21, 10:00-10:25 JST

This session focuses on methods for developing students’ motivation within an online writing course. It is believed that students could be better connected virtually as a class through a combination of synchronous and asynchronous modes of learning. Additionally, students can become stakeholders within virtual spaces through awareness-raising, self-reflection, and student empowerment. Findings from a study that investigated students’ perceptions of virtual connectedness and motivation for learning will be highlighted. The findings reveal a number of difficulties that educators must overcome within online learning. Pedagogical implications will be highlighted based upon the findings. Additionally, insights on various processes and activities for enhancing motivation within virtual spaces will be demonstrated. In particular, emphasis is placed on how virtual spaces could be utilized for enhancing students’ engagement in the learning process.

Integrating Ubiquitous Learning into Schema-Based Speaking Instruction #1026

Sun, Feb 21, 10:30-10:55 JST

This study aimed to examine the effects of integrating ubiquitous learning into schema-based speaking instruction on the learning process of EFL learners. Specifically, a group of English-major college students were exposed to two learning conditions: learning with a textbook’s photos versus learning with their self-taken photos. In the latter condition, learners used their mobile phones to take photos on a given theme. The self-taken photos were then used as alternatives to the textbook’s photos in their speaking tasks. Data were collected after four weeks by questionnaires on students’ satisfaction, perceived difficulty, and engagement. Results revealed that learners preferred to learn with their self-taken photos as they found more familiarity, which helped reduced their perceived task difficulty and enhanced their course satisfaction. Overall, this study evidenced the efficiency and feasibility of ubiquitous learning in the language classroom and reinforced the importance of integrating learners’ background knowledge in the language learning.

Communicative Needs of Chinese Professionals in the Local Workplace in Hong Kong: Implications for Pedagogy of Workplace English #1104

Sun, Feb 21, 14:00-14:25 JST

The pressing need to bridge the gap between workplace communicative needs and curriculum development for business English (BE) courses has been documented in the literature. This study examines the language use and communicative needs of Chinese professionals in Hong Kong using both quantitative and qualitative data. The participants were 163 Chinese professionals from the 4 key industries in Hong Kong. They were invited to fill in a questionnaire, and 66 of them joined a subsequent interview. Based on the findings, insights were developed as to what should be emphasized when teaching workplace English in the classroom.

Dual-Mode Teaching: Challenges and Opportunities for ELT Teachers #1011

Sun, Feb 21, 14:30-14:55 JST

In 2020, COVID-19 pushed tertiary education in Macao to change dramatically, first from face-to-face teaching to complete online teaching, and in the second half of the year, to face-to-face cum online teaching. This has posed challenges to all educators, and this sudden and immediate change has especially impacted the ELT classroom. Through in-depth interviews with 6 EFL/ESL teachers at a tertiary institution in Macao, this study looks from the teachers’ perspective at the difficulties and challenges they faced in adapting to the changes, the solutions they found to cope with the unprecedented demand, as well as their suggestions for the future ELT classrooms. The impact of COVID-19 will hopefully subside soon, yet the revolution in the way to teach English as a second/foreign language at the tertiary level has just begun.

Usage of Figures of Speech in English Songs #1013

Sun, Feb 21, 16:00-16:25 JST

This study focuses on pop music as a potential pedagogical learning resource in teaching figures of speech and in facilitating literary and linguistic appreciation. It aimed to identify the songs most listened to by 369 undergraduate students, extract figurative expressions from the lyrics of 59 English songs, and pinpoint the figures of speech used. Guided by content analysis and anchored in cognitive load theory, findings revealed that the songs utilized 18 figures of speech with extracts ranging from one to 82, resulting in a total of 237 figurative expressions. The three most commonly used figures of speech were metaphors, alliterations, and personifications whose extracts may be utilized as potential tools and examples in teaching figures of speech and other literary and linguistic devices. This research concludes that the young people listened to a wide array of English songs and favored both old and new songs. Figures of speech formed part of the creative expression of the English songs, and their usage was pervasive in the lyrics of the songs since they served as linguistic tools or vehicles that enabled the writers to express their thoughts and emotions. The potential of English pop songs as a resource in teaching language and literature, particularly figures of speech, is vast and versatile.

Creativity in English Education: What the Recent Research Tells Us #1053

Sat, Feb 27, 10:30-10:55 JST

Creativity has been receiving a lot of attention in the field of English language education. Recent academic research has attempted to answer questions such as these: What does creativity mean for English teachers and students? Can creativity be fostered? How can English teachers encourage their students to be creative while learning English? Does encouraging students to be creative help them to improve their English? This presentation will draw on the recent body of research to offer answers to all of these questions for teachers working with students of all ages. The basis for this presentation is a meta-analysis of over forty purposefully sampled research papers conducted on creativity in English classrooms in the past few years. The presenters will highlight trends in this research and draw out practical implications and recommendations for English teachers who hope to encourage their own students to practice English creatively.

Roxy Lee / Roxy Lee / Stewart Gray /

Resilient Curricula for Lockdown Learning: Experiences, Platforms, and Activities #1103

Sat, Feb 27, 10:30-10:55 JST

During the global pandemic, educators worldwide have made massive strides in helping learners change from in-person classes to digital formats. Despite these efforts, many students have found the switch to online instruction to be a frustrating, overwhelming experience. University students have reported mental, physical, and technological issues while taking classes at home instead of on campus. This paper focuses on how a resilient approach to curriculum may have the ability to reduce such difficulties. Resilient curricula focus on navigating disruptions and rebounding from sub-optimal learning situations. Based on the experiences of 300 Japan-based university students, we look specifically at four themes: issues students felt they could control and could not control, resilient technology platform use, and activity design. These themes arose through online discussions in language learning classes during 2020 and may be applicable to a range of learners. We suggest solutions for each theme and aim to share resources with participants.

Parents' Readiness for Home-Based Learning in Rural Sarawak #1050

Sat, Feb 27, 14:00-14:25 JST

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, all institutions in Malaysia were ordered closed for face-to-face interaction for the second time from 9th November 2020 until 18th December 2020. Home-based learning (HBL) was introduced in place of face-to-face interaction in the school. Teachers were given freedom to choose the right mediums, either online or offline methods, to deliver the teaching and learning contents to the pupils. The aim of this research is to find out parents' guiding ability and electronic gadgets readiness for home-based learning. A total of 513 participants (parents) from a primary rural school in Kapit, Sarawak, in Malaysia took part in this research. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that 81.5% (m=4.2) of parents were ready to guide their children’s work during HBL. However, the rate of handing in the assigned homework was disappointing at only 61.3%.

VR & ELL: Current Strategies & Future Directions Following COVID-19 #1122

Sat, Feb 27, 14:30-14:55 JST

Virtual reality (VR) holds the potential to deliver incidental learning experiences in which foreign language acquisition occurs via as opposed to for task performance. Consequently, this presentation aims to illustrate the use of VR as a vehicle for incidental, task-based instruction. Specifically, the capabilities of the Oculus Quest VR headset will be outlined by disclosing the background, implementation, and results of a small-scale study in which tertiary-level Japanese EFL participants utilized VR to navigate the information-gap game Keep Talking & Nobody Explodes. Key findings indicate that the convergence of VR and the game software occasioned learner collaboration and student-led resolution. More distinct to the VR method, however, was an enhanced sense of presence that allowed learners to experience temporary existence within its accompanying “world.” Following this will be a brief outlining of the future directions and capabilities of VR in the wake of COVID-19.

Michael D. Smith / David McCurrach /

Conversation-Based Learning: The Right Method for the Right Goal #1017

Sat, Feb 27, 14:30-14:55 JST

Stop the insanity. Grammar-based English is failing another generation of students. With videos and ten years of data, this presentation details conversation-based learning from first-day placement test to last-day improvement data. The method is writing for speaking. Writing before speaking improves accuracy; speaking to many partners improves fluency. Students sit in pairs and have "speed dating" conversations. They get a new topic every week and a new partner every seven minutes. Everybody speaks half the time, and half the time their partner is a better speaker. The self-transcribed conversation test completes the system. Students get extensive personal feedback, and teachers get accurate grading and improvement data. In short: students write what they say, talk about what they wrote, transcribe what they said, and correct their own mistakes. Students do all the work. Good. An education is preparation for life, and life is not a grammar test.

Redefining English Language Teaching for Online Learning #1047

Sat, Feb 27, 15:30-15:55 JST

The global pandemic has paved the way for virtual classrooms and redefined English language teaching. This has brought out the experience of learning outside the context of examination. The language teacher for the first time has become a facilitator and moderator in a situation where self-initiated and collective exploration leads towards sharing, questioning, and providing feedback. The objective of this presentation on redefining English language teaching for online learning is to explore significant changes in education due to the challenging circumstances created by COVID-19 with special reference to English language teaching in the Sri Lankan context primarily based on personal experience. This presentation briefly describes the context of English language teaching in Sri Lankan universities and emphasizes the role of educational technology during the pandemic to enhance the second language skills of the learners. Strategies for designing lesson plans and pedagogical input to improve the creativity of students using various resources are also explored in this presentation.

Once Upon a Time: Digital Storytelling to Enrich Asynchronous Classrooms #1055

Sat, Feb 27, 16:00-16:25 JST

This presentation reports on an action research project that used collaborative digital storytelling activities to help increase student communication, engagement, interaction, and motivation in an asynchronous classroom. An intact class of university students participated in a 3-week study where they used Flipgrid (a video-sharing platform) to co-construct narrative stories. Participant motivation and engagement were measured through a qualitative survey. Storytelling has been considered a useful exercise for language learners because it offers an opportunity for meaning-focused use of the target language through narrative structures. While there is a gap in research on collaborative storytelling, an added benefit of it is that learners must negotiate for meaning as they co-construct a single story. With the current need for online classes, platforms such as Flipgrid enable learners to easily create, share, and respond to each other’s videos. While preliminary, results suggest that online collaborative digital storytelling will enrich the asynchronous classroom.

Potential and Challenges of the Use of VR in English Education #1025

Sun, Feb 28, 09:30-09:55 JST

It is said that the use of VR can lead to increasing intrinsic motivation, raising cross-cultural awareness, and reducing affective filters during language learning (Schwienhorst, 2002). A study by Grant et al. (2013) reported a lower level of foreign language anxiety (FLA) among students using a virtual environment than students studying in a real-life classroom. Eight Japanese university students experienced VR English lessons developed by Immerse Inc. Before and after taking these VR lessons, the students took a TOEIC speaking test and completed a questionnaire survey about FLA. While taking the lessons, the students wrote in a journal about their VR experience in each lesson. In this presentation, I will discuss the possibility and challenges of using VR for English education by referring to the characteristics and contents of the VR lessons and the results of the TOEIC speaking tests, questionnaire surveys about FLA, and content-analysis of the journals.

Working Together to Write Effectively: Sociocultural Theory and Google Docs #1063

Sun, Feb 28, 14:30-14:55 JST

Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory has important implications for the EFL writing classroom. As students collaborate in the learning process, they contribute to each other’s development and growth. This presentation will explain the application of sociocultural theory in a second language writing classroom where the students used Google Docs to give one another feedback on each other’s academic writing in paragraphs and essays. The research question of this study was the following: What role does the application of sociocultural theory and peer assessment play in helping students write essays? This study took place in an English Education Department composition class at a Korean university. Through a process of reflective practice, scaffolding, and peer feedback coaching, the professor successfully prepared students to write five-paragraph essays on two different topics. This presentation will present the implications of this project for university English composition classes in Korea, as well as for future research in this area.

Students' Perceptions of an Extensive Reading Program #1015

Sun, Feb 28, 15:30-15:55 JST

The presenters will discuss the results of a student survey aimed at evaluating a new extensive reading (ER) component that was introduced as part of an EAP program at a local university in Japan. Eighty-nine participants were surveyed after completing 20 weeks and the summer reading campaign of the ER course to gauge their engagement with the program. Questions were mainly aimed at discerning how students performed their extensive reading activities and how often and on what level they relied on translating from English to Japanese in the process.

Sean Gay / Cristina Tat /