Sessions / Research Paper (25 mins)

Determining Text-Specific Comments in L2 Peer Response #1024

Sat, Feb 20, 10:30-10:55 JST

In second language (L2) peer response discourse literature, there appears little research on defining specificity in commentary. This case study examines peer response activities for essay assignments in a Korean university’s English writing course. The data comprises asynchronous peer response commentary and revision attempts for final drafts. The coding scheme employs Liu and Sadler’s (2003) codes for area, nature, and type commentary, and then adds a specificity dimension to account for specific and generic features. Results indicate that students employed various noteworthy text features – including but not limited to hedging techniques, vague expressivity, and faux specificity – when constructing commentary. Revision ideas were more often accepted for surface-level or generic-dimension commentary, suggesting simplified concepts were more impressive to essay writers. The results provide useful implications for how to model response in ways that encourage specific or generic idea construction.

Factors That Affect Reconstructing Lexical Meaning in Listening Comprehension #1001

Sat, Feb 20, 10:30-10:55 JST | Room DRJ

This research examines factors that affect reconstructing lexical meaning in listening comprehension. There is not much research examining affective factors in reconstructing vocabulary meaning in listening comprehension for EFL learners. Therefore, this study aims to find out some factors that affect language learners' word decoding to understand the overall meaning of a listening passage. A mixed-methods approach was used to investigate the elements in both quantitative and qualitative ways. To find out affective factors and apply the findings for better teaching listening directions, this study deals with 3 research questions: 1) What effect did a variety of listening passage variables have on the number of words that participants were able to identify? 2) Did the number and type of words identified have an effect on general understanding? 3) What were the participants' perceptions of the variables in each listening activity?

Why Do(n’t) Foreign English Teachers Learn Korean? A Narrative Study #1052

Sat, Feb 20, 13:00-13:25 JST | Room RR

Ask around, and you will find many foreign English teachers in Korea who think their Korean “should be better.” But what does this mean? Better for what? What motivates foreign teachers to learn Korean? And why do some teachers end up going much further with Korean than others? This presentation will provide some answers to these questions. The presenter, a (formerly) committed learner of Korean, will outline the results of a narrative study on the Korean learning experiences of foreign teachers. He will show how these teachers narrated their Korean learning motivations, and he will relate their narratives to several current motivational theories. At issue in this presentation is the influence of identity, social/romantic connections, beliefs about language learning/teaching, and formal and informal Korean learning experiences on motivation. This presentation will be of interest to those who wonder why some language learners ultimately achieve greater competence than others.

MS Word Can Measure Speaking Ability. This Changes Everything #1016

Sat, Feb 20, 14:00-14:25 JST

Korean students score at the top of the world in math and science and much lower in English speaking ability. Why? In math class, they have a math test. In science class, they have a science test. In speaking class, they have a grammar test. With videos, transcripts, and data, this presentation describes a test that is easy to give and grade. It both measures and improves speaking ability. Each student gets extensive personal feedback, and teachers get accurate grading and improvement data. In brief: three students of similar ability have a 17-minute conversation. The test is recorded on students’ phones. Students transcribe just what they said on MS Word, in about 90 minutes. MS Word gives their total words spoken and average number of words per utterance. The first test gives their ability; the second test gives their improvement. This is a communicative test, and MS Word measures precisely how much they communicated.

Affective Effects of Self-Pronunciation Evaluation via Online Search Engines #1054

Sat, Feb 20, 14:30-14:55 JST

This research presents the pedagogical effects of self-pronunciation evaluations incorporating free online search engines such as Siri and Google Translate to facilitate Japanese university learners’ automaticity. For this research, systematically designed evaluation methods and materials were developed. The foci were (a) to promote activities that reinforced the self-monitoring and self-repair skills students developed during instruction and (b) to use available technology that students could access easily at any time. The designed systematic self-evaluation sheet enabled students to track and record their production changes for each target English word throughout the instruction. This study presents (a) the evaluation sheet and work results of the students, (b) a list of misrecognized words, and (c) questionnaire results examining the learners’ affective valuables utilizing the online recognition system. The study revealed that use of the search engine along with explicit instruction provided effective monitoring tools that helped foster autonomous learners.

Teaching L2 Students Critical Review Writing Skills Through Appraisal #1139

Sat, Feb 20, 15:30-15:55 JST CANCELLED

This study attempts to reveal the implementation and use of attitude appraisal to enhance students’ critical-review writing skills. The students were asked to write a critical review of a journal they had read; however, before they started to write the text, they were introduced to and trained on how to use appraisal items including affect, judgment, and appreciation. The data of this study were thirty-nine students’ critical-review writings, which were analyzed using the appraisal framework suggested by Martin and White (2005). The results of this study reveal that most students were able to give a critical review of the journal they had read. Judgment was the type of appraisal most used by students. It deals with behavior that students admire or criticize, praise or condemn. In addition, it was seen that students’ perceptions of the journal varied based on the use of affect, judgment, and appreciation.

Japanese University Students' Perceptions of English Native-Speakerism #1005

Sat, Feb 20, 15:30-15:55 JST | Room GK

The native/non-native English-speaking teacher (NEST/NNEST) dichotomy in the English language learning/teaching context has been the topic of research interest for a long time. An increasing number of research works (e.g., Mahboob, 2004; Samimy & Brutt-Griffler, 1999) have addressed a need for rethinking native-speakerism. Nevertheless, little has been done from a bottom-up standpoint that deeply investigates the attitudes of students, as one of the main stakeholders. This exploratory study aims to address this gap in the research. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from Japanese undergraduate university students (N=278) at two private universities in November 2020. The findings show that many participants perceived a significant difference between NESTs and NNESTs, especially in terms of pronunciation and accent, and discuss the reasons for Japanese students’ negative attitudes towards their own English, as well as the influence of American hegemony and standardized tests (particularly TOEIC) on the students’ learning journeys.

Zoom or Room: Investigating Interactive Differences On- and Offline #1020

Sat, Feb 20, 15:30-15:55 JST

Since the onset of the coronavirus, EFL teachers have turned to videoconferencing applications such as Zoom and WebEx, which enable a wide range of interactive classroom activities. These apps have features called "breakout rooms" that let students do small-group activities and tasks. The hope is that (assuming good internet connections) the interactive processes will be the same or similar to offline classrooms, implying that overall task performance will be similar, and therefore, learning opportunities will also be similar. This study questions this assumption. Recordings from four university classes across two semesters of groups doing tasks on Zoom were compared to those of groups working offline. In general, the online learners (using Zoom) had different interaction patterns: they engaged in more task-organizing talk, had more and longer pauses, and engaged in fewer language-related episodes (LREs) than did the offline learners. The implications for teaching and learning are discussed.

Unveiling Racism in TESOL: The Caribbean Perspective #1027

Sat, Feb 20, 16:00-16:25 JST | Room LMH

The recent and continuing demonstrations dotted throughout the world provoked by the murder of George Floyd unveil the dirty truths of systemic racism and its deleterious impacts on Black communities and other communities of colour. Over the last two decades, there have been growing enquiries into race and racism in the TESOL fraternity that have illuminated that English language education is not neutral and absolved from the manacles of racism but, in fact, complicit in being gatekeepers of oppression, supporting white supremacy and sustaining coloniality. This theoretical presentation contributes to the burgeoning discourses on racism in language education by focusing on the first tenet of Critical Race Theory, the ubiquity of racism, as articulated by critical legal scholar Derrick Bell. By explicating the corporeal experiences and professional mobility of Anglophone Caribbean teachers, this talk magnifies the centrality of racism calcified in the Asian TESOL contexts.

The Impact of Presenting Videos in an L2 Listening Comprehension Test: An Eye-Tracking Study #1108

Sat, Feb 20, 16:00-16:25 JST

Listening is perhaps the most hidden and inaccessible language process, which makes it hard to investigate precisely. With the introduction of an eye-tracking method in L2 research, access to L2 learners’ cognitive processes during listening comprehension has become more feasible. This study used an eye-tracking method to investigate L2 learners’ cognitive processing during a listening comprehension test where videos were presented as stimuli. Most existing eye-tracking studies looked into learners’ reading processes, particularly the cognitive efforts identified while students read a sentence-level text. Few studies have yet investigated the cognitive process of listening comprehension, particularly with the presence of visual cues provided together with the aural input. A total of 117 EFL learners completed a video-mediated listening comprehension test, and their test scores and eye-movement data were analyzed. Findings show that the candidates in the video listening condition attended to the visual cues significantly more than the stem and answer choices and performed better than the candidates in the audio-only condition. It was also found that the ways of reading the stem and answer choices were not significantly affected by the presence of the visual cues and that the candidates perceived the multimodal input as additional information. In terms of the candidates’ viewing behaviors, longer and more frequent viewing of the answer key options and the PPT slides in the academic lecture videos led to improvements in test scores, while viewing distractors or speakers showed an opposite trend. This study concludes by asserting a need for more work to be carried out on this topic since there is much more variability in listening and multimodal input compared to simple reading or writing.

A Platform for Application of Picture Books for Novice Teachers #1121

Sat, Feb 20, 16:00-16:25 JST | Room GHE

The Japanese government launched their new English language education system for Japanese public elementary schools in the 2020 academic year. In the near future, it is anticipated that English classes will be conducted more by homeroom teachers, who are possibly less experienced in teaching English, due to the limited budget and insufficient number of English language professionals in Japanese public elementary schools. One policy the Japanese government has recently promoted is the application of picture books. The aim of this presentation is to provide a platform that enables those novice teachers to utilize categorization charts that the presenter developed for picture books. The platform expedites the process for selecting appropriate picture books as well as their supplementary materials and creating relevant language-learning activities for English lessons. The presenter also seeks to extend this project involving university students as well as local educators of young learners throughout Japan.

Instructors' Perspectives on Korean Students' Ideologies of English #1023

Sat, Feb 20, 16:30-16:55 JST

When it comes to Korean ideologies of English language and culture, Park (2009) theorizes three distinct practices: necessitation of English in terms of social status and mobility, externalization of English as an Other that conflicts with Korean identity, and self-deprecation of one’s own progress and achievements as English speakers. However, limited evidence exists in the literature to support these theories, and some populations such as university English instructors have seldom been investigated. This study will present survey and interview data from instructors of English in Korea for gauging their thoughts on the three aforementioned ideologies, including how instructors derive their own conclusions and how they observe students exhibiting such characteristics. Survey data was collected in Spring 2020 with reflective interviews conducted in Summer 2020, meaning answers might be contextualized by COVID-19 circumstances. For a few instructors, anonymous surveys gauging students’ perceptions were also gathered and compared to their instructors’ responses.

Higher Education Academic Identity Formation and Educator Implications #1006

Sat, Feb 20, 17:00-17:25 JST

Higher education is an important time in students’ lives, as it coincides with their identity construction of who they are and want to become. A review of the literature reveals students’ academic identity encompasses and relates to both psychological, internal aspects (beliefs, self-worth, and self-efficacy) and sociocultural/contextual factors (social interactions with peers/teachers, home-culture relevance, sense of belonging and acceptance). The kind of academic identity students develop ultimately shapes how they perceive learning and school, influences their behaviors and choices, and affects their overall academic achievement. Thus, it is imperative for educators to be aware of the various factors that influence students’ academic identity, as well as to design their curriculum and classroom instruction to best cultivate it. This literature review focuses on a discussion of four notable identity theories and concludes with educator implications and strategies to better foster students’ academic identity within our classrooms.

Anything, Anytime and Anywhere: Connecting Virtually with a Personal Touch #1085

Sun, Feb 21, 10:00-10:25 JST

This session focuses on methods for developing students’ motivation within an online writing course. It is believed that students could be better connected virtually as a class through a combination of synchronous and asynchronous modes of learning. Additionally, students can become stakeholders within virtual spaces through awareness-raising, self-reflection, and student empowerment. Findings from a study that investigated students’ perceptions of virtual connectedness and motivation for learning will be highlighted. The findings reveal a number of difficulties that educators must overcome within online learning. Pedagogical implications will be highlighted based upon the findings. Additionally, insights on various processes and activities for enhancing motivation within virtual spaces will be demonstrated. In particular, emphasis is placed on how virtual spaces could be utilized for enhancing students’ engagement in the learning process.

Integrating Ubiquitous Learning into Schema-Based Speaking Instruction #1026

Sun, Feb 21, 10:30-10:55 JST

This study aimed to examine the effects of integrating ubiquitous learning into schema-based speaking instruction on the learning process of EFL learners. Specifically, a group of English-major college students were exposed to two learning conditions: learning with a textbook’s photos versus learning with their self-taken photos. In the latter condition, learners used their mobile phones to take photos on a given theme. The self-taken photos were then used as alternatives to the textbook’s photos in their speaking tasks. Data were collected after four weeks by questionnaires on students’ satisfaction, perceived difficulty, and engagement. Results revealed that learners preferred to learn with their self-taken photos as they found more familiarity, which helped reduced their perceived task difficulty and enhanced their course satisfaction. Overall, this study evidenced the efficiency and feasibility of ubiquitous learning in the language classroom and reinforced the importance of integrating learners’ background knowledge in the language learning.

Increasing Authenticity and Motivation in an EFL Oral Presentation Class #1091

Sun, Feb 21, 10:30-10:55 JST | Room DRJ

This study explored the benefits of language authenticity between non-native speakers and native speakers through computer-mediated communication. The concept of authenticity is to expose learners to “real English with intrinsically communicative quality” (Lee, 1995, p. 324). This study included twenty-three EFL college students who presented in English to native speakers of English and bilingual speakers with a near native-speaking English proficiency for six weeks. Data were collected from the synchronous interaction recordings, reflective essays, and oral evaluation rubrics. Content analysis was adopted to analyze body language, pronunciation, content, fluency, grammar, structure, linking language, and interaction with the audience. The results showed that the authentic interaction for participants was positive on the following language learning factors: motivation, preparation, willingness to communicate, language anxiety, vocabulary, and intercultural understanding. The study has implications for creating more authentic language learning and development through computer-mediated communication.

The Great Blind Spot: Finance Ed! #1041

Sun, Feb 21, 13:00-13:25 JST | Room GL

There is a major blind-spot in the education system: financial education! Schools have addressed almost every manner of practical life, from PE and sex ed to driver's ed and cooking classes. These classes have yielded positive results for students. But even the most basic financial education has been ignored, and the results of this failure on the part of the education system are widespread and devastating. More people struggle financially than not. This need not be the case! In this presentation, I shall first reveal and analyze how and why financial distress is more common than financial security. In the second part, I will offer basic education and tips for how to achieve financial stability. Finally, I shall offer tips and ideas for how to incorporate basic financial education into lessons for various student levels.

Bridging the Gap: Academic English for Pre-intermediate – Intermediate Learners #1117

Sun, Feb 21, 13:00-13:25 JST | Room GHE

These days, many students need to study academic English before they are at an advanced level. Teachers are expected to help develop academic literacy skills in students who have not yet had the chance to build a strong foundation of English proficiency. This presentation will focus on the classroom realities of effectively teaching lower-proficiency students (< CEFR B2) in time-limited, academic contexts and how teachers meet these challenges. To explore what techniques and approaches teachers use for teaching academic English in high-expectation settings, practices backed by research findings (e.g., corpus-determined academic word lists) were gauged by how much impact and acceptance they had among self-reported academic English teachers working with pre-intermediate and intermediate level learners. Quantitative data was used to see what experienced teachers do in the classroom to help learners be academic users of English while a deductive reasoning approach was used to examine why certain classroom techniques pervade.

English Names and L2 Motivation in the Korean EFL Classroom #1081

Sun, Feb 21, 13:30-13:55 JST | Room KR

Research suggests that the perception of one’s name is correlated with employability, likeability, academic achievement, and other important life outcomes. With names being an integral part of our identity and how we are perceived, it is important that EFL teachers understand the implications of using English names with English language learners (ELLs) and the impact it has on L2 (second language) motivation. This presentation addresses two research questions: (a) Is there a difference in L2 motivation between Korean ELLs with an English name and Korean ELLs without one? (b) How does using English names impact Korean ELLs’ L2 motivation in the Korean EFL classroom? The study included a quantitative questionnaire; interviews; and a non-randomized, controlled experiment with Korean secondary students, and it was conducted as part of a master’s level dissertation. Both the findings from the research data and implications for EFL teachers will be discussed.

The Use of the ASRI Method in Teaching English for Hospitality #999

Sun, Feb 21, 13:30-13:55 JST | Room GJ

The objective of this research was to introduce an innovation in the teaching of ESP in the hospitality context. This work was based on research and development and consisted of three stages, namely the determination of the problem stage, the design stage, and the development stage. The research used a mixed-methods approach. At the preliminary stage, verbal data were classified and analyzed qualitatively. At the design stage, the results of the analysis were applied to a design called ASRI. The ASRI method was implemented in a tourism school using an experimental group and a control group. At the development stage, the learning outcomes of the two groups were compared and analyzed quantitatively. The results of the t-test showed that the experimental group's achievement was significantly greater. Thus, the ASRI method was proven to be effective in improving the speaking skills of students in the hospitality field.

Communicative Needs of Chinese Professionals in the Local Workplace in Hong Kong: Implications for Pedagogy of Workplace English #1104

Sun, Feb 21, 14:00-14:25 JST

The pressing need to bridge the gap between workplace communicative needs and curriculum development for business English (BE) courses has been documented in the literature. This study examines the language use and communicative needs of Chinese professionals in Hong Kong using both quantitative and qualitative data. The participants were 163 Chinese professionals from the 4 key industries in Hong Kong. They were invited to fill in a questionnaire, and 66 of them joined a subsequent interview. Based on the findings, insights were developed as to what should be emphasized when teaching workplace English in the classroom.

Revitalizing Students' Motivation Through Gratitude Intervention #1112

Sun, Feb 21, 14:00-14:25 JST | Auxiliary Stage

This study reports on how a gratitude-centered intervention helped to raise students’ motivation to study English between 2019 and 2020, amidst a climate of global uncertainty brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. The research involved ongoing observations of weekly basic English communication classes with a total of 300 students participating during the time period of the project. This work on gratitude is a part of broader work on positive psychology in language education, including the development of themed narrative mini-books and self-compassion workshops. In the current study, gratitude-centered concepts were first introduced in lecture style with supportive multimedia examples. Later, students engaged in gratitude activities such as co-constructing a gratitude box, a gratitude journal, and a storybook writing. Written questionnaires were also given to students towards the end of each 15-week semester. Throughout the project, motivation, attendance, attentiveness, gratitude, and "being aware of the small things" were seen to increase.

Dual-Mode Teaching: Challenges and Opportunities for ELT Teachers #1011

Sun, Feb 21, 14:30-14:55 JST

In 2020, COVID-19 pushed tertiary education in Macao to change dramatically, first from face-to-face teaching to complete online teaching, and in the second half of the year, to face-to-face cum online teaching. This has posed challenges to all educators, and this sudden and immediate change has especially impacted the ELT classroom. Through in-depth interviews with 6 EFL/ESL teachers at a tertiary institution in Macao, this study looks from the teachers’ perspective at the difficulties and challenges they faced in adapting to the changes, the solutions they found to cope with the unprecedented demand, as well as their suggestions for the future ELT classrooms. The impact of COVID-19 will hopefully subside soon, yet the revolution in the way to teach English as a second/foreign language at the tertiary level has just begun.

English Learning Motivation at University: EMI vs. Mother-Tongue Programs #1019

Sun, Feb 21, 14:30-14:55 JST | Room GL

Many universities offer both degrees taught in English and degrees taught in the local language. Although both programs include English classes, students’ patterns of English learning motivation likely differ depending on language use in other classes. Understanding these motivational patterns can help teachers and course designers motivate students’ learning English during university. This original research study in Macao, China, compared first-year students in English-medium (EMI) and Chinese-medium (CMI) programs at one institution. Students’ motivation and enjoyment using English were measured three times over the year. Results show that for students in both EMI and CMI programs, enjoyment using English increased, but English learning motivation decreased, particularly for CMI students. EMI students’ demotivation was partly related to negative attitudes toward the work of studying English or discovering their English ability was sufficient to cope. Implications are given for teachers and course designers in EMI and mother-tongue programs.

From Linguistic Challenges to Classroom Activities: Preparing EIL Hosts for Visitors #1051

Sun, Feb 21, 15:30-15:55 JST | Auxiliary Stage

Through the lens of English as an international language (EIL), this study investigates linguistic challenges university students and tour guides in Thailand have when hosting foreign visitors, and how those challenges can be addressed in classroom activities. A questionnaire was distributed to 113 university students and 70 tour guides. Additionally, interviews with 7 students and 2 tour guides were employed for data triangulation. It was found that the participants had problems with specialized vocabulary, especially those related to architecture and Thai culture. Visitors’ accents and low language ability also hindered the success in hosting visitors. A two-hour session incorporating EIL tenets of communication strategies and inter-cultural sensitivity that addressed those linguistic challenges was implemented with 30 students. This study hopes to provide insights into commonly found linguistic problems for visitor hosts. These can be considerations for English for Tourism course designers and teachers.

My Student Just Wants to Chat! Are They Learning Anything? #1113

Sun, Feb 21, 15:30-15:55 JST | Room GJ

This is a presentation of my own research into online 1:1 general-purpose speaking classes with adults. I'll present a few recorded extracts of moments when a correction or repair-initiation was launched and encountered trouble. First, we'll analyze these extracts through a traditional SLA lens and then analyze the same extracts through a more social/ethnomethodological lens (as is the trend in many journals these days), compare the findings, and consider which approach is more relevant to different contexts.

William Owens / William Owens /

Intercultural Education Through Educational Drama and Theatre Techniques #1120

Sun, Feb 21, 16:00-16:25 JST | Room LMH

This presentation is about how we can use educational drama and theatre techniques in order to promote human rights and intercultural education in English language teaching. It is an undeniable fact that drama and theatre empower students to understand their world through exploring roles and situations and develop students’ verbal and non-verbal, individual and social communication skills. In this presentation, we will be presented with ideas that can be used in both virtual and physical classes about educational drama and theatre techniques like forum theatre, image theatre, flashbacks and flashforwards, puppetry, story circles, Conscience Alley, and many more aiming to promote effective learning and creative use of the target language while teaching students about human rights, respect, and no-hate speech while contributing to intercultural education in English teaching lessons.

Talking to Myself: Enhancing Fluency in Spontaneous Speech Through Soliloquizing #1010

Sun, Feb 21, 16:00-16:25 JST | Room GHE

Soliloquizing has been identified as oral fluency training practice in Chinese after-school settings. Nevertheless, the actual potency of soliloquizing has not been established; in particular, whether soliloquizing is effective in promoting EFL learners’ fluency in spontaneous speech has yet to be validated. This study set out to establish the efficacy of soliloquizing in promoting spontaneous speaking fluency and to explore its optimal implementation setting(s). 31 EFL undergraduates were randomly assigned to four soliloquizing conditions, which differed in terms of time-pressure and restriction of filler words. To examine participants’ gains under the four soliloquizing conditions, their pruned speech rates before and after the treatment were cross-compared. Additionally, questionnaires and interviews were administered to these participants to probe their experience with soliloquizing. Analysis showed that soliloquizing effectively enhanced the participants’ affect and fluency gains, albeit to different extents under different implementation conditions.

Usage of Figures of Speech in English Songs #1013

Sun, Feb 21, 16:00-16:25 JST

This study focuses on pop music as a potential pedagogical learning resource in teaching figures of speech and in facilitating literary and linguistic appreciation. It aimed to identify the songs most listened to by 369 undergraduate students, extract figurative expressions from the lyrics of 59 English songs, and pinpoint the figures of speech used. Guided by content analysis and anchored in cognitive load theory, findings revealed that the songs utilized 18 figures of speech with extracts ranging from one to 82, resulting in a total of 237 figurative expressions. The three most commonly used figures of speech were metaphors, alliterations, and personifications whose extracts may be utilized as potential tools and examples in teaching figures of speech and other literary and linguistic devices. This research concludes that the young people listened to a wide array of English songs and favored both old and new songs. Figures of speech formed part of the creative expression of the English songs, and their usage was pervasive in the lyrics of the songs since they served as linguistic tools or vehicles that enabled the writers to express their thoughts and emotions. The potential of English pop songs as a resource in teaching language and literature, particularly figures of speech, is vast and versatile.

Creativity in English Education: What the Recent Research Tells Us #1053

Sat, Feb 27, 10:30-10:55 JST

Creativity has been receiving a lot of attention in the field of English language education. Recent academic research has attempted to answer questions such as these: What does creativity mean for English teachers and students? Can creativity be fostered? How can English teachers encourage their students to be creative while learning English? Does encouraging students to be creative help them to improve their English? This presentation will draw on the recent body of research to offer answers to all of these questions for teachers working with students of all ages. The basis for this presentation is a meta-analysis of over forty purposefully sampled research papers conducted on creativity in English classrooms in the past few years. The presenters will highlight trends in this research and draw out practical implications and recommendations for English teachers who hope to encourage their own students to practice English creatively.

Roxy Lee / Roxy Lee / Stewart Gray /

Resilient Curricula for Lockdown Learning: Experiences, Platforms, and Activities #1103

Sat, Feb 27, 10:30-10:55 JST

During the global pandemic, educators worldwide have made massive strides in helping learners change from in-person classes to digital formats. Despite these efforts, many students have found the switch to online instruction to be a frustrating, overwhelming experience. University students have reported mental, physical, and technological issues while taking classes at home instead of on campus. This paper focuses on how a resilient approach to curriculum may have the ability to reduce such difficulties. Resilient curricula focus on navigating disruptions and rebounding from sub-optimal learning situations. Based on the experiences of 300 Japan-based university students, we look specifically at four themes: issues students felt they could control and could not control, resilient technology platform use, and activity design. These themes arose through online discussions in language learning classes during 2020 and may be applicable to a range of learners. We suggest solutions for each theme and aim to share resources with participants.

Less Anxiety Is Important for Improving English Proficiency #1107

Sat, Feb 27, 10:30-10:55 JST | Room SP

The purpose of this research is to investigate the factor(s) related to improving the English proficiency of university students in student-centered communicative lessons. Eighty-eight Japanese EFL students completed a questionnaire at the middle of a semester. It included affective components such as foreign language enjoyment (FLE)/foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) scales and some demographic components. The students took the TOEIC IP before and after the semester to check their progress on English proficiency. A logistic regression analysis was calculated to find the factor(s) involved in increasing the TOEIC scores, based on six independent variables. It was found that the factor that led to the improvement of English proficiency after the course was students' being less anxious in the middle of the semester. Teachers should make every effort to envision English classrooms together with their students by considering students’ feelings (especially anxiety) during lessons and create an unthreatening language learning environment.

Reframing Language Class: Student Perceptions, Engagement, and Outcomes #1111

Sat, Feb 27, 13:00-13:25 JST | Room KR

This presentation reports on how a reframing of a language class was correlated with increased student engagement and improved language proficiency outcomes. The study was conducted with primary school learners of English as a second language, but we will discuss implications for TESOL at multiple levels. Also, we will collaboratively create ways to leverage reframing in our own teaching and learning contexts.

Classroom Innovation: Addressing English Classroom Needs Through Design Thinking #1123

Sat, Feb 27, 13:30-13:55 JST | Room KR

In response to the challenges faced by the Department of Education, this study aimed to provide innovative solutions in addressing English classroom needs. The study specifically utilized design thinking (DT) to address classroom needs at the secondary level vis-a-vis open possibilities of using DT in addressing other problems. Using a qualitative research design, it utilized a single case study aimed at developing and explaining an existing problem. The study had six students and four teacher discussants from the junior high school equally representing the private- and public-school sectors. The results of the focus group discussion found that students identified problems encountered in an English language classroom. Such problems were identified as needs and became the starting point of the teacher discussants in their DT orientation and workshop. DT provides promising innovative solutions in addressing problems in the classroom and may be utilized as a process in improving academic learning.

Does Duolingo Improve Standardized Test Scores? #1042

Sat, Feb 27, 14:00-14:25 JST | Room GHE

Language learning apps are increasingly important study tools. With millions of learners worldwide, Duolingo is one of the most popular such apps. A 2012 study by Vesselinov and Grego stated that beginning learners of Spanish gained the equivalent of a semester's worth of study in 34 hours of Duolingo use. Can Japanese university students make the same gains in English? This study tested 75 first-year students with the TOEIC Bridge test, a common standardized test, before and after 14 weeks of Duolingo use. A linear regression found that the app provided only a tiny average increase to TOEIC scores, indicating that it is not highly effective. Possible reasons for this result, discrepancies between this and other studies, and suggestions for further research will be discussed.

Parents' Readiness for Home-Based Learning in Rural Sarawak #1050

Sat, Feb 27, 14:00-14:25 JST

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, all institutions in Malaysia were ordered closed for face-to-face interaction for the second time from 9th November 2020 until 18th December 2020. Home-based learning (HBL) was introduced in place of face-to-face interaction in the school. Teachers were given freedom to choose the right mediums, either online or offline methods, to deliver the teaching and learning contents to the pupils. The aim of this research is to find out parents' guiding ability and electronic gadgets readiness for home-based learning. A total of 513 participants (parents) from a primary rural school in Kapit, Sarawak, in Malaysia took part in this research. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that 81.5% (m=4.2) of parents were ready to guide their children’s work during HBL. However, the rate of handing in the assigned homework was disappointing at only 61.3%.

VR & ELL: Current Strategies & Future Directions Following COVID-19 #1122

Sat, Feb 27, 14:30-14:55 JST

Virtual reality (VR) holds the potential to deliver incidental learning experiences in which foreign language acquisition occurs via as opposed to for task performance. Consequently, this presentation aims to illustrate the use of VR as a vehicle for incidental, task-based instruction. Specifically, the capabilities of the Oculus Quest VR headset will be outlined by disclosing the background, implementation, and results of a small-scale study in which tertiary-level Japanese EFL participants utilized VR to navigate the information-gap game Keep Talking & Nobody Explodes. Key findings indicate that the convergence of VR and the game software occasioned learner collaboration and student-led resolution. More distinct to the VR method, however, was an enhanced sense of presence that allowed learners to experience temporary existence within its accompanying “world.” Following this will be a brief outlining of the future directions and capabilities of VR in the wake of COVID-19.

Michael D. Smith / David McCurrach /

Conversation-Based Learning: The Right Method for the Right Goal #1017

Sat, Feb 27, 14:30-14:55 JST

Stop the insanity. Grammar-based English is failing another generation of students. With videos and ten years of data, this presentation details conversation-based learning from first-day placement test to last-day improvement data. The method is writing for speaking. Writing before speaking improves accuracy; speaking to many partners improves fluency. Students sit in pairs and have "speed dating" conversations. They get a new topic every week and a new partner every seven minutes. Everybody speaks half the time, and half the time their partner is a better speaker. The self-transcribed conversation test completes the system. Students get extensive personal feedback, and teachers get accurate grading and improvement data. In short: students write what they say, talk about what they wrote, transcribe what they said, and correct their own mistakes. Students do all the work. Good. An education is preparation for life, and life is not a grammar test.

Redefining English Language Teaching for Online Learning #1047

Sat, Feb 27, 15:30-15:55 JST

The global pandemic has paved the way for virtual classrooms and redefined English language teaching. This has brought out the experience of learning outside the context of examination. The language teacher for the first time has become a facilitator and moderator in a situation where self-initiated and collective exploration leads towards sharing, questioning, and providing feedback. The objective of this presentation on redefining English language teaching for online learning is to explore significant changes in education due to the challenging circumstances created by COVID-19 with special reference to English language teaching in the Sri Lankan context primarily based on personal experience. This presentation briefly describes the context of English language teaching in Sri Lankan universities and emphasizes the role of educational technology during the pandemic to enhance the second language skills of the learners. Strategies for designing lesson plans and pedagogical input to improve the creativity of students using various resources are also explored in this presentation.

Once Upon a Time: Digital Storytelling to Enrich Asynchronous Classrooms #1055

Sat, Feb 27, 16:00-16:25 JST

This presentation reports on an action research project that used collaborative digital storytelling activities to help increase student communication, engagement, interaction, and motivation in an asynchronous classroom. An intact class of university students participated in a 3-week study where they used Flipgrid (a video-sharing platform) to co-construct narrative stories. Participant motivation and engagement were measured through a qualitative survey. Storytelling has been considered a useful exercise for language learners because it offers an opportunity for meaning-focused use of the target language through narrative structures. While there is a gap in research on collaborative storytelling, an added benefit of it is that learners must negotiate for meaning as they co-construct a single story. With the current need for online classes, platforms such as Flipgrid enable learners to easily create, share, and respond to each other’s videos. While preliminary, results suggest that online collaborative digital storytelling will enrich the asynchronous classroom.

Assessment of Learner and Student Performance in Distance Learning #1046

Sat, Feb 27, 16:30-16:55 JST | Room AS

The new reality created by COVID-19 has caused a lot of changes in the educational sphere. The transition from face-to-face to distance teaching was not smooth in Ukraine because distance learning was not a common practice here before, and teachers were unprepared for teaching online. Therefore, we started our qualitative research primarily to get insights into the altered daily routines of teachers. In particular, we were interested in how teachers assessed their students’ performance online. In this paper, we will focus on secondary school language teachers (n=65) and language tutors at the tertiary level (n=18). The research findings have revealed that teachers gave feedback through different digital applications such as Google Classroom. Oral performance was evaluated either synchronously or asynchronously. The most crucial implication is that teachers should improve and further develop their digital skills and distance teaching and assessing skills in order to provide quality education in the digital world.

Potential and Challenges of the Use of VR in English Education #1025

Sun, Feb 28, 09:30-09:55 JST

It is said that the use of VR can lead to increasing intrinsic motivation, raising cross-cultural awareness, and reducing affective filters during language learning (Schwienhorst, 2002). A study by Grant et al. (2013) reported a lower level of foreign language anxiety (FLA) among students using a virtual environment than students studying in a real-life classroom. Eight Japanese university students experienced VR English lessons developed by Immerse Inc. Before and after taking these VR lessons, the students took a TOEIC speaking test and completed a questionnaire survey about FLA. While taking the lessons, the students wrote in a journal about their VR experience in each lesson. In this presentation, I will discuss the possibility and challenges of using VR for English education by referring to the characteristics and contents of the VR lessons and the results of the TOEIC speaking tests, questionnaire surveys about FLA, and content-analysis of the journals.

Decolonization, Linguistic Bias, Language Hierarchies, and TESOL #1110

Sun, Feb 28, 09:30-09:55 JST | Room AC

English has been and continues to be a mechanism for colonization and oppression. How, then, can English teachers engage in socially just or decolonizing practices? How can we use TESOL as a mechanism for disrupting rather than perpetuating biases based on language, race/ethnicity, and national origin? In this presentation, we will examine the implications of English's dominance and consider resistance as teaching and learning practice.

Feedforward: Text Response Techniques That Improve Student Writing #1118

Sun, Feb 28, 09:30-09:55 JST | Auxiliary Stage

Teachers spend hours reading, correcting, and giving feedback on learner writing. It is widely perceived as being part of a teacher’s job and a valuable form of language input. But how much do learners understand from teacher responses to texts? What do the learners take away from teacher feedback, and how useful is teacher input on student texts for language learning and writing skills development? If teachers are going to invest time and effort in text response, then it is important to identify what writing feedback techniques are impactful and effective for making the next piece of writing better. This presentation focuses on effective, accessible methods of responding to learner writing, the ideas behind them, and how teachers and students perceive feedback in practice. Quantitative data will show which techniques learners and teachers prefer and why. The session will explore tactics for realizing learning through teacher input on student writing.

Korean English Teachers' Experiences of Participating in Long-Term Professional Development for TETE #1002

Sun, Feb 28, 14:00-14:25 JST | Room AS

Teaching English through English (TETE) plays a significant role in promoting English teachers' ability to implement English as a medium of instruction. To promote K-12 English teachers' TETE implementation, the Ministry of Education in Korea has actively promoted a professional development program. This study explored Korean K-12 English teachers' self-efficacy with regard to TETE implementation and their experiences of participating in the long-term professional development (PD) program (six months). Through two surveys, semi-structured interviews, and classroom observations, the data analysis showed that PD could enhance English teachers' self-efficacy in implementing TETE, and the PD site provided a professional learning community for English teachers to reflect on what they had learned from the PD training. However, further data analysis found that self-efficacy and experiences in the PD program were different for elementary and secondary English teachers. Several suggestions are provided in terms of how to effectively prepare K-12 English teachers for TETE implementation through the long-term PD program.

Working Together to Write Effectively: Sociocultural Theory and Google Docs #1063

Sun, Feb 28, 14:30-14:55 JST

Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory has important implications for the EFL writing classroom. As students collaborate in the learning process, they contribute to each other’s development and growth. This presentation will explain the application of sociocultural theory in a second language writing classroom where the students used Google Docs to give one another feedback on each other’s academic writing in paragraphs and essays. The research question of this study was the following: What role does the application of sociocultural theory and peer assessment play in helping students write essays? This study took place in an English Education Department composition class at a Korean university. Through a process of reflective practice, scaffolding, and peer feedback coaching, the professor successfully prepared students to write five-paragraph essays on two different topics. This presentation will present the implications of this project for university English composition classes in Korea, as well as for future research in this area.

Using Cloud Computing to Improve Feedback about EFL Oral Presentations #1089

Sun, Feb 28, 14:30-14:55 JST | Room AC

In this presentation, I will discuss my experiences fostering a reflective learning environment via (a) the delivery of near-immediate teacher and peer feedback and (b) subsequently requiring students to submit reflections about their learning experiences using cloud computing (G Suite for Education). Certain pedagogical tasks limit teachers’ abilities to provide immediate feedback, such as when students are giving presentations. I will explain how cloud computing can help to overcome such challenges, notably by videoing students, incorporating teacher feedback into the video such that students are receiving critical feedback about their language production and presentation skills, and making it available to them in the cloud. Thereafter, based on students’ comments and their reflective learning assignments, I will discuss (a) whether students were able to understand corrective feedback about use of the -s morpheme (plural -s, third person -s, possessive -s) and (b) whether better usage occurred thereafter (uptake).

Students' Perceptions of an Extensive Reading Program #1015

Sun, Feb 28, 15:30-15:55 JST

The presenters will discuss the results of a student survey aimed at evaluating a new extensive reading (ER) component that was introduced as part of an EAP program at a local university in Japan. Eighty-nine participants were surveyed after completing 20 weeks and the summer reading campaign of the ER course to gauge their engagement with the program. Questions were mainly aimed at discerning how students performed their extensive reading activities and how often and on what level they relied on translating from English to Japanese in the process.

Preparing University Learners for Academic Writing in English #1028

Sun, Feb 28, 16:00-16:25 JST | Room JT

Most second language learners arrive at university having had little writing tuition at high schools beforehand. Writing thus represents a steep learning curve for these learners. Furthermore, there are significant differences between those in their first or final year; from coherency and paragraph construction in their first year through to academic dissertations in their final year. This presentation will describe a method to help second-year university learners construct an academic text. This approach incorporates both process and product approaches. While specific creative stages utilize the process cycle of self-reflection, production, feedback, and rewriting, other stages are better served by incorporating an ideal for learners to work toward. Both constraints and benefits of this blended approach will be described in this presentation.

How Student Teachers Appropriate Communicative Teaching Ideas from Reflective Dialogue #1105

Sun, Feb 28, 16:30-16:55 JST | Room JB

Post-lesson reflections are a staple of TESOL practicums to promote professional development. But we know little about how reflections with supervisors help student teachers appropriate ideas to develop their emerging practice. This paper presentation addresses this knowledge gap through a qualitative study of the recorded post-lesson reflections of four Chinese student teachers that I supervised in an American TESOL practicum. Analysis focuses on how we sought solutions to problems of practice that interfered with student communication. It identifies ideas that we discussed and then traces how student teachers appropriated these ideas for implementation in successive lessons. The study finds that the student teachers needed supervisor assistance in identifying problems that interfered with student communication and that this assistance proceeded through stages of dialogue. Analysis identifies how student teachers exercised two principle dialogical moves that worked to change conceptions of TESOL practice and drive appropriation of new ideas for CLT implementation.

Teaching Presentation Skills Online: A Case Study #1014

Sun, Feb 28, 16:30-16:55 JST | Room SP

This study aimed to help improve students’ public speaking skills, which is a graduation requirement at International University. A total of 44 intermediate-level students were selected, and a mixed model with a pre-test, a post-test, and observation was applied. In addition to the lecturer’s input and tips, the experimental students benefited from cooperative learning and technology applications. Also, they were required to video-record their homework presentations and give feedback and suggestions on other presentations based on a checklist provided. Google Drive was recommended to give students easy access to sample presentations for reflections and self-improvement. After the eight-week treatment, results from the pre-test and post-test revealed that students in the experimental group achieved better scores on their presentations in terms of organization and visual aids and minor improvement in pronunciation, lexical usage, and grammatical usage. This sheds light on an alternative for teaching public speaking online.

What Do They Expect? A Survey of Freshman Taking Online English Classes #1071

Sun, Feb 28, 17:00-17:25 JST | Room SP

How can we achieve student "buy in" with our online teaching methods? What do they expect the online classroom to look like? This presentation discusses the results of a survey given to university freshmen in their first semester of online classes. They answered questions about their access to online classes and the professor's teaching methods and feedback along with classmate interaction. We aim to look at online classes from the student's perspective in order to make a connection with them in a virtual setting.

Foreign Language Teachers and Learners in the Face of COVID-19 #1114

Sun, Feb 28, 17:30-17:55 JST | Room SP

We present the findings of a global longitudinal study (involving over 6,000 participants from 118 countries) investigating how language teachers and learners as well as linguistics instructors and students were handling the 2020 transition to emergency remote instruction. We will present the meaningful relationships between mutually interacting variables, including sociodemographics (gender, age, education level handled, prior experience with online instruction), circumstances and logistics (economic status of the country, life circumstances, infections among family and friends, level of support), attitudes, behaviors, psychological states, and personality traits (including coping, engagement, and well-being). The significant, sometimes non-trivial findings offer valuable guidance for prevention and training, both during the ongoing pandemic and in possible future shifts to emergency remote teaching and learning.